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Inflation

Inflation has several definitions such as the increase of salaries, the increase in prices, and the increase in the money supply. In each definition the causes and effects differ in many ways.

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    How Did the USA Recover from the Great Depression of the 1930s? SHORT STORY # 51. Nonfiction series #1 - # 60. by Alla P. Gakuba    Everyone's Guide to the South African Economy 12th edition by Andr Roux    Money By Fiat: you'll laugh about it one day... by Dean Bonkovich    Managing Inflation in China: Current Trends and New Strategies by Yuanchun Liu    Managing Inflation in China: Current Trends and New Strategies by Yuanchun Liu    Managing Inflation in China: Current Trends and New Strategies by Yuanchun Liu    A Model-Based Analysis of Spillovers: The Case of Poland and the Euro Area by Michal Andrle & Roberto Garcia-Saltos    Are Non-Euro Area EU Countries Importing Low Inflation from the Euro Area? by Plamen Iossifov & Jiri Podpiera    Guatemala: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for Guatemala by International Monetary Fund. West Dept.    Measuring External Risks for Peru: Insights from a Macroeconomic Model for a Small Open and Partially Dollarized Economy by Fei Han    Trinidad and Tobago: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for Trinida by International Monetary Fund. West Dept.    Sweden: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for Sweden by International Monetary Fund. Euro Dept.    Output Gap in Presence of Financial Frictions and Monetary Policy Trade-offs by Francesco Furlanetto & Paolo Gelain    Liquidity Trap and Excessive Leverage by Anton Korinek & Alp Simsek    Russian Federation: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Informational Annex Press Release by International Monetary Fund. Euro Dept.    On the use of Monetary and Macroprudential Policies for Small Open Economies by F. Gulcin Ozkan & D. Filiz Unsal    Ms. Muffet, the Spider(gram) and the Web of Macro-Financial Linkages by Ricardo Cervantes & Phakawa Jeasakul    Republic of Poland: 2014 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for the Rep by International Monetary Fund. Euro Dept.    New Zealand: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Press Release by International Monetary Fund. Asia Dept    Inflation and Public Debt Reversals in the G7 Countries by Bernardin Akitoby & Takuji Komatsuzaki    Commercial Property Price Indexes: Problems of Sparse Data, Spatial Spillovers, and Weighting by Mick Silver & Brian Graf    Inflation Reports and Models: How Well Do Central Banks Really Write? by Ales Bulir    Inflation Targeting and Fiscal Rules: Do Interactions and Sequencing Matter? by Jean-Louis Combes    Time-Varying Neutral Interest Rate-The Case of Brazil by Roberto Perrelli & Shaun K. Roache    India's Recent Macroeconomic Performance: An Assessment and Way Forward by Muneesh Kapur & Rakesh Mohan    Islamic Republic of Iran: Selected Issues Paper by International Monetary Fund MIDD Dept    Inflation Persistence in Brazil: A Cross Country Comparison by Shaun K. Roache    Islamic Republic of Iran: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Press Release And Statement by the Executive Director for th by International Monetary Fund MIDD Dept    Angola: Second Post-Program Monitoring Press Release And Statement by the Executive Director for Angola by International Monetary Fund Afri Dept    Myanmar: Second Review Under the Staff-Monitored Program-Staff Report and Press Release by International Monetary Fund Asia Dept    Estimating Sri Lanka's Potential Output by Ding Ding & John Nelmes    India: Staff Report for 2014 Article IV Consultation by International Monetary Fund. Asia Dept    Monetary and Macroprudential Policies to Manage Capital Flows by Juan Pablo Medina Guzman & Jorge Roldos    Commodity Price Shocks and Imperfectly Credible Macroeconomic Policies in Commodity-Exporting Small Open Economies by Juan Pablo Medina Guzman & Claudio Soto    India: Selected Issues by International Monetary Fund. Asia Dept    Czech Republic: 2014 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for the Czech R by International Monetary Fund. Euro Dept.    Introducing a Semi-Structural Macroeconomic Model for Rwanda by Luisa Charry & Pranav Gupta    Commodity Prices and Inflation Expectations in the United States by Oya Celasun & Roxana Mihet    Clarity of Central Bank Communication About Inflation by Ales Bulir & Martin Cihák    Price Subsidies and the Conduct of Monetary Policy by Mohamed Safouane Ben Aissa & Nooman Rebei    Philippines: Selected Issues by International Monetary Fund. Asia Dept    Japan: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report and Press Release by International Monetary Fund. Asia Dept    Is Japan's Population Aging Deflationary? by Derek Anderson & Dennis P. J. Botman    Euro Area Policies: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Press Release And Statement by the Executive Director by International Monetary Fund Euro Dept    Disentangling India's Investment Slowdown by Rahul Anand & Volodymyr Tulin    Regional Economic Outlook, April 2014: Fostering Durable and Inclusive Growth by International Monetary Fund    Does Demand Volatility Lower Growth and Raise Inflation? Evidence from the Caribbean by Magda E. Kandil    The Case for a Long-Run Inflation Target of Four Percent by Laurence M. Ball    Regional Economic Outlook, April 2014: Sub-Saharan Africa: Fostering Inclusive Growth by International Monetary Fund    Get The Skinny on Silver Investing by David Morgan

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How Did the USA Recover from the Great Depression of the 1930s? SHORT STORY # 51. Nonfiction series #1 - # 60.

Alla P. Gakuba

How Did the USA Recover from the Great Depression of the 1930s? SHORT STORY # 51. Nonfiction series #1 - # 60. by Alla P. Gakuba

How did the USA survive and recover from the Great Depression of the 1930s? There were 3 factors responsible for it: (1) World War II; (2) Noble President Franklin D. Roosevelt, FDR; and (3) The struggles, and tribulations of that generation.

The story describes thee Great Depression, FDR

2017 / 3 / 2
$1.00

£0.79
€0.91
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Everyone's Guide to the South African Economy 12th edition

Andr Roux

Everyone's Guide to the South African Economy 12th edition by Andr RouxRecession, inflation, interest rates, income tax, exchange rates ... We are bombarded with these terms every day - by newspapers, the radio, TV and the internet - but what do they actually mean? And how do they impact on you? In this updated edition of Everyone's Guide to the South African Economy, all these issues - and more - are addressed. The book clearly explains and evaluates a wide range of economic occurrences - from the budget and the rand/dollar exchange rate to the balance of payments and the role of the South African Reserve Bank. The book investigates the causes and consequences...
2017 / 2 / 27
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Money By Fiat: you'll laugh about it one day...

Dean Bonkovich

Money By Fiat: you'll laugh about it one day... by Dean BonkovichUsing the British, U.S. and New Zealand monetary systems, and the Bank for International Settlements among others, to describe the operations of every central bank throughout the world, Money by Fiat explains the dangers of fiat money not only in terms of these four entities, but also in terms of every fiat currency that has ever existed. Beginning from 1694 and the incorporation of the Bank of England, and then moving into the modern age, Money By Fiat delves into the world of the biggest theft in human history.
2016 / 9 / 27
$2.99

£2.37
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Managing Inflation in China: Current Trends and New Strategies

Yuanchun Liu

Managing Inflation in China: Current Trends and New Strategies by Yuanchun LiuAs the RMB has tumbled to an 11-month low, with fears that it could fall further still and increase inflation in China. Managing Inflation in China: Current Trends and New Strategies, Volume 1, looks at the current levels of inflation in China and offers predictions for the near-future. The authors survey the trends of the recent past and use a full range of statistics from the last 10 years to offer a frank assessment of current inflationary policy in China. Reveals the internal causes of inflation by highlighting: 1. Links between the Flexible Renminbi (RMB) Exchange Rate and Inflation 2....
2015 / 3 / 16
$108.00

£85.56
€98.15
Ca$148.28
Au$148.07
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Managing Inflation in China: Current Trends and New Strategies

Yuanchun Liu

Managing Inflation in China: Current Trends and New Strategies by Yuanchun LiuManaging Inflation in China: Current Trends and New Strategies looks at the current levels of inflation in China and offers predictions for the near-future. The authors survey the trends of the recent past and use a full range of statistics from the last 10 years to offer a frank assessment of current inflationary policy in China. Reveals the internal causes of inflation by highlighting: ? Links between the Flexible Renminbi (RMB) Exchange Rate and Inflation ? False Transmission between CPI and PPI ? Price Fluctuations of Bulk Commodities and Inflation In an era where the Renminbi is poised...
2015 / 2 / 14
$198.00

£156.86
€179.95
Ca$271.84
Au$271.45
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Managing Inflation in China: Current Trends and New Strategies

Yuanchun Liu

Managing Inflation in China: Current Trends and New Strategies by Yuanchun LiuAs the RMB has tumbled to an 11-month low, with fears that it could fall further still and increase inflation in China. Managing Inflation in China: Current Trends and New Strategies, Volume 1, looks at the current levels of inflation in China and offers predictions for the near-future. The authors survey the trends of the recent past and use a full range of statistics from the last 10 years to offer a frank assessment of current inflationary policy in China. Reveals the internal causes of inflation by highlighting: 1. Links between the Flexible Renminbi (RMB) Exchange Rate and Inflation 2....
2015 / 2 / 14
$108.00

£85.56
€98.15
Ca$148.28
Au$148.07
to wish list

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A Model-Based Analysis of Spillovers: The Case of Poland and the Euro Area

Michal Andrle & Roberto Garcia-Saltos

A Model-Based Analysis of Spillovers: The Case of Poland and the Euro Area by Michal Andrle & Roberto Garcia-SaltosThis paper studies economic and financial spillovers from the euro area to Poland in a two-country semi-structural model. The model incorporates various channels of macrofinancial linkages and cross-border spillovers. We parameterize the model through an extensive calibration process, and provide a wide range of model properties and evaluation exercises. Simulation results suggest a prominent role of foreign demand shocks (euro area and global) in driving Poland�s output, inflation and interest rate dynamics, particularly in recent years. Our model also has the capability for medium-term...
2014 / 11 / 25
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Are Non-Euro Area EU Countries Importing Low Inflation from the Euro Area?

Plamen Iossifov & Jiri Podpiera

Are Non-Euro Area EU Countries Importing Low Inflation from the Euro Area? by Plamen Iossifov & Jiri PodpieraThe synchronized disinflation across Europe since end-2011 raises the question of whether non-euro area EU countries are affected by the undershooting of the euro area inflation target. To shed light on this issue, we estimate an open-economy, New Keynsian Phillips curve, in which we control for imported inflation. Regression results suggest that falling food and energy prices have been the main disinflationary driver. But low core inflation in the euro area has also had a clear and significant impact. Countries with more rigid exchange-rate regimes and higher share of foreign value added in...
2014 / 11 / 24
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Guatemala: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for Guatemala

International Monetary Fund. West Dept.

Guatemala: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for Guatemala by International Monetary Fund. West Dept.KEY ISSUES Context. Guatemala’s economy has performed solidly since the 2008–09 crisis. Output has converged to potential, inflation is under control, and macroeconomic policies remain prudent. However, risks to the outlook are tilted downwards, while buffers are modest and space for counter-cyclical policies is thin. Long-term inclusive growth is constrained by low investment in physical and human capital, institutional weaknesses, and lack of security. Near-term policies are broadly appropriate. With the output gap closed, the broadly neutral fiscal stance is adequate. The monetary stance...
2014 / 11 / 24
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Measuring External Risks for Peru: Insights from a Macroeconomic Model for a Small Open and Partially Dollarized Economy

Fei Han

Measuring External Risks for Peru: Insights from a Macroeconomic Model for a Small Open and Partially Dollarized Economy by Fei HanThis paper quantifies the effects of external risks for Peru, with particular attention to two major external risks, China’s investment slowdown and the U.S. monetary policy tightening. In particular, a macroeconomic model for a small open and partially dollarized economy is developed and estimated for Peru to measure the risk spillovers, and simulate domestic macroeconomic responses in different scenarios with these two external risks. The simulation results suggest that Peru’s output is vulnerable to both risks, particularly the U.S. monetary policy tightening. Simulations also highlight...
2014 / 11 / 23
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Trinidad and Tobago: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for Trinida

International Monetary Fund. West Dept.

Trinidad and Tobago: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for Trinida by International Monetary Fund. West Dept.KEY ISSUES The economy is embarking on sustainable growth, but the main challenge will be to boost long-run growth by structural reforms and reorienting fiscal policy. Supply-side slowdowns in the energy sector are ending, while available evidence suggests non-energy growth is robust and economic slack is being used up. Non-energy growth should settle around a long-term 2–2½ percent per annum rate, while new energy sector investment may begin to bear significant fruit over the medium term. Headline inflation is trending down (in part for statistical reasons), while core inflation remains...
2014 / 11 / 23
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Sweden: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for Sweden

International Monetary Fund. Euro Dept.

Sweden: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for Sweden by International Monetary Fund. Euro Dept.Sweden’s economy has re-gained speed, following supportive macroeconomic policies and strong household demand. Employment has been rising, but the labor force expanded even more, resulting in higher unemployment mostly among vulnerable groups. Inflation remains very low, driven by external and domestic factors. At the same time, financial stability risks are an increasing concern, reflecting high and rising household debt, accelerating house prices, and Sweden’s very large banking system.
2014 / 11 / 23
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Output Gap in Presence of Financial Frictions and Monetary Policy Trade-offs

Francesco Furlanetto & Paolo Gelain

Output Gap in Presence of Financial Frictions and Monetary Policy Trade-offs by Francesco Furlanetto & Paolo GelainThe recent global financial crisis illustrates that financial frictions are a significant source of volatility in the economy. This paper investigates monetary policy stabilization in an environment where financial frictions are a relevant source of macroeconomic fluctuation. We derive a measure of output gap that accounts for frictions in financial market. Furthermore we illustrate that, in the presence of financial frictions, a benevolent central bank faces a substantial trade-off between nominal and real stabilization; optimal monetary policy significantly reduces fluctuations in price and...
2014 / 11 / 22
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Liquidity Trap and Excessive Leverage

Anton Korinek & Alp Simsek

Liquidity Trap and Excessive Leverage by Anton Korinek & Alp SimsekWe investigate the role of macroprudential policies in mitigating liquidity traps driven by deleveraging, using a simple Keynesian model. When constrained agents engage in deleveraging, the interest rate needs to fall to induce unconstrained agents to pick up the decline in aggregate demand. However, if the fall in the interest rate is limited by the zero lower bound, aggregate demand is insufficient and the economy enters a liquidity trap. In such an environment, agents' exante leverage and insurance decisions are associated with aggregate demand externalities. The competitive equilibrium allocation...
2014 / 11 / 22
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Russian Federation: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Informational Annex Press Release

International Monetary Fund. Euro Dept.

Russian Federation: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Informational Annex Press Release by International Monetary Fund. Euro Dept.KEY ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS Context. The growth slowdown continued in 2013, reflecting pre-existing structural reasons, despite accommodative policies. The fallout from geopolitical tensions relating to Ukraine is bringing the economy to a standstill. Fiscal tightening is expected this year as the non-oil deficit remains near record high. In response to mounting pressures on the ruble, the Central Bank of Russia (CBR) raised interest rates to address risks to medium- term inflation and increased intervention to support the ruble. Some structural reforms were initiated, including a partial...
2014 / 11 / 22
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On the use of Monetary and Macroprudential Policies for Small Open Economies

F. Gulcin Ozkan & D. Filiz Unsal

On the use of Monetary and Macroprudential Policies for Small Open Economies by F. Gulcin Ozkan & D. Filiz UnsalWe explore optimal monetary and macroprudential policy rules for a small open economy. Delegating 'lean against the wind' squarely to macroprudential policy provides a more robust policy mix to shock uncertainty—(i) if macroprudential measures exist, there are no significant welfare gains from monetary policy reacting to credit growth under a financial shock; and (ii) monetary responses to financial markets could generate bigger welfare losses than macroprudential responses under different shocks. The source of outstanding liabilities also plays a role in the choice of policy instrument—...
2014 / 11 / 21
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Ms. Muffet, the Spider(gram) and the Web of Macro-Financial Linkages

Ricardo Cervantes & Phakawa Jeasakul

Ms. Muffet, the Spider(gram) and the Web of Macro-Financial Linkages by Ricardo Cervantes & Phakawa JeasakulThe global financial crisis has underscored the importance of understanding macro-financial developments and spillovers in an increasingly interconnected and intricate system. At the IMF, staff is focusing on the linkages between the real economy and the financial sector, as well as the inter-relationships between global and individual-country risks. The Country Financial Stability Map provides an empirical framework for explicitly linking these various aspects of the IMF’s surveillance of its member countries. It identifies potential sources of macro-financial risks particular to a country...
2014 / 11 / 21
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Republic of Poland: 2014 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for the Rep

International Monetary Fund. Euro Dept.

Republic of Poland: 2014 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for the Rep by International Monetary Fund. Euro Dept.The economy is steadily recovering from a substantial slowdown in 2012–13, helped by improving conditions in main trading partners and a rebound in job creation and household consumption. Financial markets and the zloty have stayed relatively stable amidst renewed global financial market turmoil. Going forward, growth is expected to continue to strengthen, though external risks remain on the downside.
2014 / 11 / 21
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New Zealand: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Press Release

International Monetary Fund. Asia Dept

New Zealand: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report Press Release by International Monetary Fund. Asia DeptKEY ISSUES Outlook and risks The economic expansion is becoming increasingly embedded and broad-based, driven by supportive financial conditions, historically high commodity prices, resurgent construction activity related to the Canterbury post-earthquake rebuild and general housing shortages, and a substantial increase in net immigration. The main external threat to the outlook continues to be a sharp slowdown in China. Domestically, rapid house price inflation remains a concern. Medium- and long-term challenges. New Zealand’s net external liability position, although relatively stable,...
2014 / 11 / 21
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Inflation and Public Debt Reversals in the G7 Countries

Bernardin Akitoby & Takuji Komatsuzaki

Inflation and Public Debt Reversals in the G7 Countries by Bernardin Akitoby & Takuji KomatsuzakiThis paper investigates the impact of low or high inflation on the public debt-to-GDP ratio in the G-7 countries. Our simulations suggest that if inflation were to fall to zero for five years, the average net debt-to-GDP ratio would increase by about 5 percentage points over the next five years. In contrast, raising inflation to 6 percent for the next five years would reduce the average net debt-to-GDP ratio by about 11 percentage points under the full Fisher effect and about 14 percentage points under the partial Fisher effect. Thus higher inflation could help reduce the public debt-to-GDP...
2014 / 11 / 21
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05/29/2017
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