Some cultures are clearly more deceptive than others but only during any given slice of time. No single culture has excelled in deceptiveness throughout its history. While the Chinese did rise to the highest level of military deviousness during the time of Sun Tzu (c.350 BC), they had low levels before Master Sun, and afterwards largely lost it during three long periods, only to regain it each time. The most recent Chinese loss was when they fell to the lowest level from the late 1700s until being conquered in 1948 by the stratagemic Chinese Communists (PLA). Thence the PLA has displayed high if not the highest levels of deceptiveness, although there are indications that, beginning in 2002, they are again on the upswing.
The levels of guilefulness at any given time can be quite different across the major disciplines of military, domestic politics, foreign diplomacy, and commercial business. Perceived practical considerations of greed and survival do sometimes override religious, moral, or ethical factors to produce deceptive behavior.
The levels of guilefulness at any given point in time between any two contemporary armed entities (nations, insurgents, or terrorists) are apt to be asymmetric.
Deception sophistication is independent of technological change. Within each culture deception varies widely in its levels of sophistication. High, medium, and low levels were found in every culture at different times and regardless of its level of technology. The reason? Because deception is a mind game, it is played only between or among humans. And this condition will remain as long as machines such as computers lack artificial intelligence.
Because deception is a mind game, the variations in guilefulness between opposing individuals or groups can be crucial in deciding the victor in combat.
To view this DRM protected ebook on your desktop or laptop you will need to have Adobe Digital Editions installed. It is a free software. We also strongly recommend that you sign up for an AdobeID at the Adobe website. For more details please see FAQ 1&2. To view this ebook on an iPhone, iPad or Android mobile device you will need the Adobe Digital Editions app, or BlueFire Reader or Txtr app. These are free, too. For more details see this article.
|Size: ||1.7 MB|
|Publisher: ||Naval Institute Press|
|Date published: || 2016|
|ISBN: ||9781612519838 (DRM-EPUB)|
|Read Aloud: ||not allowed|
|This ebook will only be sold to customers with a billing address in:|
|Alan Island, American Samoa, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, British Indian Ocean Territory, Canada, Cayman Islands, Chile, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Colombia, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), Faroe Islands, Finland, France, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern Territories, Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guernsey, Guyana, Haiti, Heard and Mc Donald Islands, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jersey, Korea (Republic of), Luxembourg, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mexico, Micronesia (Federated States of), Monaco, Montserrat, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Norway, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Pitcairn, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin (French Part), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia (Slovak Republic), Slovenia, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Spain, St. Helena, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Suriname, Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands, Sweden, Switzerland, Tokelau, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, United Kingdom, United States, United States Minor Outlying Islands, Uruguay, Vatican City State (Holy See), Virgin Islands (British), Virgin Islands (U.S.)|